Siyasa A Kasar Hausa Kafin Daular Usmaniyya Da Sauye-Sauyen Da Ta Kawo (I)

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Siyasa A Kasar Hausa Kafin Daular Usmaniyya Da Sauye-Sauyen Da Ta Kawo (I)

Tsarin siyasar Bahaushe a kan mulki, kusan ya zama kai da fata wanda raba su abu ne mawuyaci in ko aka ce sai an raba to za a sha wahala kuma sai an kai ruwa rana. Kasar Hausa kafin jihadi, yanki ne da yake karkashin mulkin Habe, wato Hausawa inda karfa-karfa ta yi ka-ka-gida wato Uwar Rago ake yi wa jaje a wannan lokacin, ma’ana dai lokaci ne da zalunci ya yi yawa, da danniya, a tsakanin masu mulki da wadanda ake mulka. Wannan ne ya sa hatta matakan da ake bi kafin a kai ga hawa wani mataki musamman na sarkin gari; hanya ta farko ita ce jarumtaka, wato ko ka gada sai ka zama jarumi kafin ka hau gadon sarauta. Saboda haka ya sa masu mulki a tunaninsu, Tallakawa makaskanta ne, don haka zalunci ya yi katutu, da halin wayo-ni-‘yasu.

Misali rashin hadin kai da kuma yake-yake a tsakanin manyan garuruwan Hausawa ya yawaita. Misali, a shekarar 1760 an gwabza yaki tsakanin Gobir da kasar Katsina, haka an gwabza tsakanin Kano da Zamfara a dai wannan shekara (1760). Ire-iren wannan yake-yaken solar faru ne saboda tunanin masu mulki a wannan fatara, shi ne mamaya da fadada yankunan mulki (girman kasa) na kowanne mai mulki. Kuma wannan shi ne tunanin masu mulki a kan siyasar mulki. (ONWUBIKO 1973).

Siyasar Mulki A Kasar Hausa A Zamanin Daular Usmaniyya

Kamar yadda muka sani, musulunci ya shigo kasar Hausa tun a karni na goma sha uku Babura, (2014). Kuma tun kafin zuwan musulunci akwai hanyar tafiyar da mulki bisa irin tunaninsu da kuma yadda ya kamata mulkin ya kasance. Amma zalunci da bidi’o’i da suka yi yawa, wanda hakan shi ya haifar da gwarzon Jihadi wato jihadin Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo. Babura, (2014). Wannan hali a kasar Hausa, wanda a sakamakon haka mulki a kasar Hausa ya sauya fasali,wato ya koma tsarin siyasar mulki ya koma addini tsantsa. Misali wakar Abdullahi Gwando a kan mulki, yana cewa:

“Musulmai manya-manya da salihansu

Ka zabar mai gabatar musulumina”

“su taru su dau alwashi na da’a

Bisa horon alkur’an da sunna”.

Jihadin Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo (Gwarzon Jihadi), ya kawo hadin kai a kasar Hausa a tsakanin masu mulki, sanadiyyar juyin-juya-hali inda aka kwace mulki daga hannun habe ya koma hannun Fulani masu jihadi. Misali a Kano an karbi mulki daga hannun sarki na karshe a sarautar habe wato Kutumbawa. Muhammad Alwali inda aka raraka shi zuwa kasar tudun Wadar Dan Kade Burum-Burum garin da kaninsa wambai Tagwai yake sarauta, suka kashe shi a can, suka karbi mulki. Sarki na farko a sarautar Fulani a kasar Kano shi ne modibo Sulaimanu Bamundabe. Haka abin ya kasance a Katsina inda Umarun Dallaje ya zama sarkin farko a sarautar Fulani, inda a kasar Zazzau aka samu sarki na farko a sarautar Fulani wato malam Musa.

Shehu Usmanu dan Fodiyo ya bar harkokin gudanarwa da suka shafi mulki a cikin rayuwarsa a shekarar 1809, ya dukufa cikin abin da ya shafi addini da harkokin koyar da addini. Amma kafin sannan ta raba tsarin gudanarwar daular mulki zuwa gida biyu kamar haka;

Yankin Gabashi
Yankin Yammaci

 

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