Nazari A Kan Samuwar Fasahar Rediyo A Duniya

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Nazari A Kan Samuwar Fasahar Rediyo A Duniya

Rediyo fasaha ce mai amfani da sigina don sadarwa. Rediyo yana amfani da sigina ta mayan karfe dake tsakanin mita hertz 30 (Hz) da 300 gigahertz (GHz). Ana samar da su ta hanyar na’urar lantarki da ake kira mai watsawa (transmitter) wacce take hade da eriya wacce take amsar sigina daga na’urar harbawa (transmitter) sannan takaita ga siginar rediyo mai amsa. Ana amfani da rediyo sosai a cikin fasahar zamani, a cikin sadarwa ta rediyo, akwai fasahar radar, rediyo mai kewaye – radio nabigator, rediyo da ake sarrafata ta iska, akwai fasahar rediyo mai kwakwalwa da sauran fasahohinta daban daban.

A cikin sadarwar rediyo, ana amfani da ita a cikin watsa shirye-shiryen rediyo da talabijin, wayoyin hannu, rediyo mai hanya biyu, sadarwar mara waya da sadarwa ta tauraron dan adam da sauran wasu amfani masu yawa, ana amfani da fasahar rediyo don daukar bayanai ta amfani da sararin samaniya daga mai watsawa – transmitter zuwa mai karba – receiber ta hanyar daidaita siginar rediyo a cikin fasahar.

A bangaren radar, ana amfani da ita don ganowa da kuma sanin wurin da abin neman yake, kamar jirgin sama, jiragen ruwa, jirgin kumbon sama da gano makamai masu linzami, wata na’u’ra da ake amfani da ita ta hanyar radar ita take gano abinda ake nema, sannan kuma ta bayyana inda abin yake.

A bangaren tsarin radio nabigator kamar GPS da VOR, da wayar hannu sana karbar siginar rediyo daga na’u’ra mai kewaye – nabigational radio wacce aka san matsayarta kuma ta hanyar auna daidai lokacin isowar sigina rediyo, sai a lissafa matsayinta ta yadda ya dace ayi amfani da ita don amsar sako.

A cikin na’urori masu amfani da nesa na rediyo mara waya kamar drones, storage door openers, da keyless entry system, siginar rediyo da ake watsa daga na’urar mai sarrafawa ita ke sarrafa ayyukan wadannan abubuwan masu nesa.

Wasu daga cikin Aikace-aikacen rediyo wabes wadanda ba su watsa signa nesa, kamar RF da ake amfani da su a masana’antu da murhun wutar lantarki (oven) da kuma cikin na’u’rorin kiwon lafiya kamar su diathermy da injunan MRI, galibi ba a kiransu rediyo. Amma ana amfani da sunan ne, saboda suna kai sako ta hanyar manhajar radiyo.

Masanin ilmin kimiyar lissafi dan kasar Jamus Heinrich Hertz ne ya fara gano kimiyyar fasahar rediyo a shekara ta 1886. Kimiyyar na’u’rar tattara bayanai da watsa labarai na rediyo na farko an kirkireshi ne a kusa da 1895-1896 na Guglielmo Marconi dan kasar Italia, kuma an fara amfani da rediyo ta hanyar kasuwanci a kusan 1900. Don hana tsangwama tsakanin masu amfani da rediyo aka fitar da doka don daidaita tsari. wanda wata kungiya ta kasa da kasa ta duniya da ake kira Worldwide Telecommunication Union (ITU) ke tsarawa, wacce ke ba da mitoci a cikin zangon rediyo don amfani daban-daban.

 

Bangaren Kimiyya

Ana watsa kimiyyar radiyo ta hanyar na’u’rar lantarki mai matukar hanzari, Ana halittar su ta hanyar kere-kere da ke bin hanyar lokaci-lokaci masu saurin canzawar wutan lantarki, wadanda suka hada da wutan lantarki wadanda ke kaiwa da komowa a cikin wani madugun karfe da ake kira eriya, don haka yaka kara sauri.

A lokacin watsawa (transmission), naura mai watsawa tana haifar da wani yanayi na mitar rediyo wanda ake amfani da shi zuwa eriya. Itakuma eriya sai ta tattaro bayanai ta sarrafa sannan ta watsa. Lokacin da wabe suka bugi eriyar mai karbar signa, suna tura electrons din da ke cikin karfan na gaba gaba, sai su haifar da alamun lantarki.

Yayin da signa tayi tafiya nesa da mai watsawa, wabe suna rage karfin sigina (ƙarfi a cikin watts a kowane murabba’in mita) ya ragu, don haka ana iya karbar signa ne kawai a cikin iyakantaccen zangon watsawa, watsa signa nesa ta dogara ne da iko da karfin mai watsawa, Tsarin radiyon eriya, karancin mai karbar wuta, matakin amo, da kasancewar cikas tsakanin mai watsawa da mai karbar.

Don haka, wabe suna tafiya ne acikin wani yanayi kullalle kamar tafiyar haske, sannan kuma tafiyarsa a iska tana kusa da saurin tafiyar haske.

Sauran nau’ikan electromagnetic wabes solar hada da; infrared, bisible gentle, ultrabiolet, d-rays da gamma rays, suma suna iya ɗaukar bayanai kuma ana amfani dasu don sadarwa. Yawan amfani da radio wabes don sadarwa ya samo asali ne saboda kyawawan halayen yaduwar su wanda ya samo asali daga babban tsarinsu. Radio wabes suna da ikon wucewa ta sararin samaniya, ganye, da galibin kayan gini, kuma ta hanyar rarrabawa na iya lankwasawa gami da toshewa.

 

A Bangaren Sadarwa

A cikin tsarin sadarwa na rediyo, ana daukar bayanai zuwa fadin sararin samaniya ta amfani da radio wabe. A karshen abinda aka watsa, bayanan za a sauya su su koma zuwa nau’ikan transducer zuwa siginar lantarki mai tafiya da banbancin lokaci da ake kira siginar sauyawa. Alamar canzawar na iya zama siginar sauti kamar ta sifikar makirufo, siginar bidiyo da ke wakiltar hotuna masu motsi daga kyamarar bidiyo, ko siginar dijital ta komfuta dake sarrafa sifili da daya (01) bayan ta tattaro su ta sauya su zuwa hotuna masu motsi. Ana amfani da siginar canzawa (Modulator) zuwa mai watsa sigina (transmitter). Ta bangaren mai watsawa (transmitter), oscillator yana Samar da wutar lantarki wacce za ta dauki bayanan da za a watsa, wacce ake kira mai daukowa saboda ana amfani ne da ita don “daukar” bayanai ta iska. Tsarin daukar magana ta iska, yana da nau’ika da daban daban. Akwai

AM – a cikin tsarin watsa bayanan AM, karfin tafiyar bayanan da ingancinsu ya danganta ne da ingancin na’u’ra mai watsa bayanan – transmitter

FM (Mai saurin yanayi) – a cikin tsarin mai watsa bayann FM, karfin magana ko kuma sigina ta banbanta da tsakaninta da modulater.

FSK – ana amfani dashi a cikin na’urori na dijital marasa waya don watsa sigina na komfuta dijital, siginal tana canzawa lokaci lokaci, wannan fasaha tana wakiltar lambobin bainari biyu zero da 1, don watsa shirye-shirye.

OFDM (sau da yawa rikice-rikice masu rarrabuwa) – dangi mai cike da rikitarwa ta hanyoyin zamani wadanda ake amfani dasu sosai a cikin tsarin bandwidth mai girma kamar su hanyoyin sadarwa na WiFi, wayoyin hannu, watsa shirye-shiryen talabijin na dijital, da watsa shirye-shiryen dijital na zamani (DAB) don watsa bayanan dijital ta amfani da mafi karancin zangon rediyo. bandwidth Yana da ƙimar aiki mafi girma da kuma juriya ga shuɗewa fiye da AM ko FM. A cikin OFDM, ana watsa sigina masu daukar bayanai da yawa da ke tazara a mitar a cikin tashar rediyon, don haka ana aika ragowa da yawa a lokaci daya, a layi daya.

Dukkan nau’ikan Siginar rediyo suna ratsa sararin samaniya ba tare da su yi gamo da juna ba ko kuma wata ta tare wata ba, ba tsangwama wa juna saboda kowacce mai watsa wa (transmitter) tanada fanni ko mita daban daban, wanda ake auna mitarta da kilohertz (kHz), megahertz (MHz) ko gigahertz (GHz). Eriya mai karbar sigina galibi tana karbar siginar rediyo daga masu watsawa (transmiter) da yawa. Mai karbar – eriya tana amfani da da’ira don zabar siginar rediyo da ake bukata daga cikin dukkan siginar dasuka iso zuwa ga eriya.

 

Watsa Shirye-shirye

Watsa shirye-shirye, wata fasahar ce mai tafiyar ta hanya daya (Zai kai sako amma ba Zai amso wani sako ba) daga mai watsawa (transmitter) zuwa ga masu karbar sako, kamar tashoshin rediyi na jama’a. Tunda mun fada cewa ita signar rediyo karfinta kusancinta da inda za ta kai sako ko bayanai, za a iya karbar bayanai ne daga mai watsawa kawai cikin wata iyakantattar tazarar nisa daga mai watsawa – transmitter. Amma Tsarin da ke watsa shirye-shiryensa daga tauraron dan Adam – satelite, zai iya kai sako ko watsa shirye-shirye da zai isa ko ina a kasa ko kuma duk Nahiya.

Watsa shirye-shirye ta hanyar amfani da sassa na watsa shirye-shirye (MHz, GHz,..) Na rediyo, ya danganta da nau’in siginar da ake son watsa wa da kuma masu sauraren bayanan. Doguwar sigina da matsakaiciyar sigina na iya ba da amintacciyar sigina zuwa yankunan da ke da nisan kilomita daruruwa zuwa zanguna masu nisa, amma suna da iyakantattun bayanan dasuke dauka, don haka, doguwar sigina da matsakaiciya solar fi kyau tare da siginar sauti (magana da kida), kuma karar sauti za ta iya lalacewa ko rage aminci saboda surutu da ake fuskanta lokacin dauko sautin daga mai watsa wa zuwa mai karba. Amma gajeriyar sigina, tanada aminci sosai amma solar fi fuskantar tsangwama ga tashoshin nesa da sauyin yanayi da ke shafar siginar.

 

 

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